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StoneFlakes Data Set
Download: Data Folder, Data Set Description

Abstract: Stone flakes are waste products of the stone tool production in the prehistoric era. The variables are means of geometric and stylistic features of the flakes contained in different inventories.

Data Set Characteristics:  

Multivariate

Number of Instances:

79

Area:

N/A

Attribute Characteristics:

Real

Number of Attributes:

8

Date Donated

2014-05-20

Associated Tasks:

Classification, Clustering, Causal-Discovery

Missing Values?

Yes

Number of Web Hits:

26272


Source:

Owner: Thomas Weber
Landesamt für Denkmalpflege und Archäologie Sachsen-Anhalt
Richard-Wagner-Str. 9
06114 Halle/Germany
tweber '@' lda.mk.sachsen-anhalt.de

Donor: Gunter Ritter
University of Passau
94030 Passau/Germany
ritter '@' fim.uni-passau.de


Data Set Information:

Background information: The data set concerns the earliest history
of mankind. Prehistoric men created the desired shape of a stone tool
by striking on a raw stone, thus splitting off flakes, the waste
products of the crafting process. Archaelogists do not find many tools,
but they do find flakes. The data set is about these flakes. Its rows do
not stand for single flakes but for whole inventories of them. The given
features are relative frequencies of binary, and mean values of numerical
characteristics taken over all pieces found in the inventory. A question
related to the data set is: Does the data reflect the technological
progress during several hundred thousand years?

Annotation:
The columns below stand for the identifier of the inventory, a group
defined by the archaeologists mainly by age and hominid type (1=Lower
Paleolithic, Homo ergaster?, oldest; 2=Levallois technique; 3=Middle
Paleolithic, probably Neanderthals; 4=Homo sapiens, youngest), age of
the stone artefacts (millennia, not to be taken too seriously), mode of
dating (geological=more accurate, typological), stone material (1=flint,
2=other), region (mit=Central Germany, d=Non-Central Germany, eur=Europe
without Germany), site (1=gravel pit, 0=other), number of finds in
inventory.

ID group age dating mat region site number
-------------------------------------------
ar 3 -120 geo 2 d 0 34
arn 2 -200 typo 1 mit 1 5
be 2 -200 typo 1 mit 1 331
bi1 1 -300 geo 1 mit 0 4111
bi2 1 -300 geo 2 mit 0 77
bie 2 -200 geo 1 mit 1 8
bn 2 -200 typo 1 mit 1 25
bo 2 -200 geo 1 d 1 211
by 2 -200 typo 1 mit 1 8
c 3 -80 geo 1 mit 1 50
cl 1 -300 geo 1 eur 1 134
d 2 -200 geo 1 mit 1 104
e1 3 -120 geo 1 mit 0 772
e2 3 -120 geo 2 mit 0 215
ey 2 -200 geo 1 mit 1 356
fli 1 ? ? 1 mit ? 119
g10 3 -80 geo 1 d 0 38
g11 3 -80 geo 1 d 0 122
g2 3 -80 geo 1 d 0 614
g4 3 -80 geo 1 d 0 60
g5 3 -80 geo 1 d 0 57
g6 3 -80 geo 1 d 0 104
ga1 3 -80 geo 1 mit 0 418
ga2 3 -80 geo 2 mit 0 44
goe 3 -120 geo 1 mit 0 21
gra 3 -120 geo 1 mit 0 7
gro 1 -300 geo 1 mit 1 11
gue 2 -200 typo 1 mit 1 95
hey 2 -200 typo 1 mit 1 56
hu 2 -200 geo 1 mit 1 71
hx 2 -200 geo 1 eur 0 135
ka 3 -80 geo 1 mit 0 270
kb 3 -80 geo 1 mit 0 506
kc 3 -80 geo 1 mit 0 190
l 3 -120 geo 1 mit 0 20
li 3 -80 geo 1 mit 0 140
lue 2 -200 geo 1 mit 1 651
m 2 -200 geo 1 mit 1 2717
mar 1 -300 geo 1 mit 1 16
ml 1 -300 typo 1 mit 1 62
mr 2 -200 typo 1 mit 1 107
ms 2 -200 typo 1 mit 1 17
n 3 -120 geo 1 mit 0 256
nie 2 -200 typo 1 mit 1 55
pb 3 -80 geo 1 mit 0 291
r 3 -120 geo 1 mit 0 102
r1 3 -80 typo 1 d 1 270
r3 3 -80 typo 1 d 1 315
reh 2 -200 geo 1 mit 1 36
roe 3 -80 geo 1 mit 1 104
s1 3 -80 geo 1 d 0 159
s2 3 -80 geo 1 d 0 299
s4 3 -80 geo 1 d 0 153
s5 3 -80 geo 1 d 0 100
sa1 4 -40 geo 1 eur 0 65
sa2 4 -40 geo 1 eur 0 370
sa3 4 -40 geo 1 eur 0 430
san 1 ? ? 1 mit ? 103
sk 2 -200 geo 2 d 0 126
sm 3 -80 geo 1 d 0 180
so 3 -80 geo 1 d 0 366
sz 2 -200 typo 1 d 1 308
t1 3 -120 geo 1 mit 0 395
t2 3 -120 geo 2 mit 0 58
ta 2 -130 geo 2 d 0 59
tb 3 -80 geo 1 d 0 42
v1 1 -400 geo 1 eur 0 120
v2 1 -400 geo 2 eur 0 208
va 2 -200 geo 1 mit 1 5
w1 3 -120 geo 1 mit 0 537
w2 3 -120 geo 2 mit 0 24
wd 1 -300 geo 1 mit 1 727
we 3 -80 geo 1 mit 0 338
wl 2 -200 typo 2 mit 1 315
wn 1 -300 geo 1 mit 1 39
woe 1 -300 geo 1 mit 1 20
wol 2 -200 geo 1 mit 1 218
wst 2 -200 typo 2 mit 1 69
z 2 -200 geo 1 mit 0 214


Attribute Information:

LBI: Length-breadth index of the striking platform
RTI: Relative-thickness index of the striking platform
WDI: Width-depth index of the striking platform
FLA: Flaking angle (the angle between the striking platform and the splitting surface)
PSF: platform primery (yes/no, relative frequency)
FSF: Platform facetted (yes/no, relative frequency)
ZDF1: Dorsal surface totally worked (yes/no, relative frequency)
PROZD: Proportion of worked dorsal surface (continuous)

LBI, RTI, WDI, FLA, and PROZD are averages, PSF, FSF, and ZDF1 are
relative frequencies


Relevant Papers:

Thomas Weber (2009): The Lower/middle palaeolithic transition - is
there a Lower/middle palaeolithic transition?
Preistoria Alpina 44: 1-6.

D. Schäfer (1993): Grundzüge der technologischen Entwicklung und
Klassifikation vorjungpaläolithischer Steinartefakte in
Mitteleuropa. Berichte der Römisch-Germanischen Kommission,
74: 49-193.

Gunter Ritter (2014): Robust Cluster Analysis and Variable Selection,
Chapman and Hall/CRC.



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